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Joe Buck: The Real/Reel Cowboy

Note: This is a guest posting from Patrick Runfeldt, dramaturg for our Winter MainStage production of Midnight Cowboy.

It may seem a bit of a stretch to insinuate that Joe Buck has any measure of “true” cowboy in him. He’s certainly not the strapping presence of John Wayne (or even the Marlboro man) who is embedded in the very fabric of our culture as the gun-toting, swearing, and quaintly charming hero of the West in film and folklore. Frankly, he can’t even live up to the rhinestone-studded shoes of his contemporaries from the saloons of Texas to the nightclubs of New York. Digging a little deeper, however, Joe’s situation — young, homeless, and unemployed — meets the exact criteria of the cowhands of early ranching times.

Before the great innovations of turn-of-the-century America and the migration of railroad routes farther and farther West, the best way to transport cattle was via miles and miles of herding. Most cattle ranchers of early pioneering times were either quick to give the practice up or were consolidated into larger cattle ranch holdings by wealthy landowners (or even the occasional businessman from the East). As a result, the practice of actually herding, defending, and moving the cattle across the vast plains was handed down the line to a ragtag band of youthful, unemployed vagabonds who could hardly afford to scrape together the money for a decent meal, let alone a six-shooter or a pair of fine leather boots. These uneducated, rough and tumble men were a melting pot of recent immigrants (Latino, Chinese, etc.) and poor white farmworkers whose immigrant families had initially come West seeking fortune in gold mining or other quick wealth pursuits. Many were orphans, due to disease, poor crops, or the general exposure to the elements that shortened lifespans in the pre-industrial West. Few believed in the “American Dream” that was being formulated, fought for, or defended prior to and after the Civil War. All of them knew how to drink, heavily. In the shadows of mountain passes, these young men passed long winters defending miles of cattle from wild animal attacks, thieves (even though they were known to steal a certain number of cattle for themselves), and the dangers of the natural terrain. Though they tried several times to unionize, these cow hands were poorly paid, prone to lawlessness and robbery (they had to get their money from somewhere, right?), and sometimes just didn’t know enough to know of a better life.

In short, they were much like Joe and Ratso.

The myth surrounding these downtrodden workers began to develop as their own labors died out. In the late 1880s, a promoter named William Frederick Cody began to travel and ride under the name “Buffalo Bill” in a sideshow revue that began to attract huge crowds throughout the rapidly industrializing eastern half of the United States. Oftentimes, Buffalo Bill would recruit unemployed cow hands who had a trick or two up their sleeve, dress them up, and then craft a show and story out of their garish costumes (think rhinestones, spurs, and the elaborate designs you’d see in a 50s TV show). Dime novels quickly picked up on the popularity and TV shows and movies would follow from the 50s through the present.

Enter Joe Buck. As Joe grew up in the 40s and 50s, his formative ideas of masculinity, power, and romance would have all been formulated and shaped by the cowboy show. Sprinkle in the larger-than-life memories of his would-be father figure, Woodsy Niles, and it’s safe to say that Joe probably always wanted to be a cowboy. The problem, however, is that he never tended cattle. He never even saw much of the open plains. He lived in an era of paved roads, beauty parlors, and overly large Cadillacs, and his childhood was spent anywhere but outdoors. Several times throughout the play, Joe is faced with a dangerous situation and can only be protected by enacting his own method of “cowboy” justice. When he fails to play upon his cowboy persona to live a life of lawlessness, he falls further and further into squalor, distrust, and chaos. By the time he is able to reconnect with his image on a pedestal (the literal pedestal onstage) of Woodsy Niles, it might be too little too late. No matter what, the end result (real or imagined) had already been written for him. A cowboy he very well may be…

Prosperity?: The Gospel according to $3,000 suits (Or, a Conclusion.)

Note: This is a guest posting from Patrick Runfeldt, dramaturg for our Winter MainStage production of Midnight Cowboy.

A cursory glance at the themes of Chris Hainsworth‘s adaptation of Midnight Cowboy reveals a striking outlier not much present in James Leo Herlihy’s novel: religious promises of prosperity. Certainly Joe Buck attends Sunday school at the behest of his grandmother Sally and attempts to be vaguely involved in “church”, but the significance never reaches the forefront of the novel. Not so with Hainsworth’s adaptation, wherein the audience is guided and shadowed by the mysterious Mr. O’Daniel. He is a half-crazy street “preacher” mixed with just the right amount of foreshadowing present in predecessors like a Greek chorus or griot. O’Daniel provides Joe’s character with both diagnosis and decree at various moment, cycling back through a series of emotional peaks and valleys throughout Joe’s checkered past. The overall narrative, however, never strays from a clear trajectory of the “prosperity gospel” preached by such famous televangelists as Joel Osteen and his predecessor Oral Roberts. Perhaps an examination of Roberts’ wildly successful and ultimately troubled personal history will allow for further understanding of the implications of Hainsworth’s thematic move and, ultimately, what it all means for Joe in the play.

Oral Roberts was one of the most famous and celebrated televangelists of the 1950s through the 1980s and his career spanned near to his death in 2009. His wealth so far exceeded his needs that he opened an entire university dedicated to his philosophies, with the entire campus decorated in real flakes of gold. The dark corners hidden behind the TV lights, however, always ate away at Oral; his entire empire was founded on donations from mostly poor Americans who were convinced that what he was preaching would turn their economic and personal lives around. His philosophy (better known as the aforementioned “prosperity gospel”) has inspired the model for megachurches and religious profiteers for more than half a century now: “Plant a seed—meaning, send a check—and God will reward you with health, wealth, and happiness”. Oral’s own life (despite his material prosperity) was undercut by his distance from his family, his religious flock (several lawsuits and audits tarnished his ministry organization and his university), and, in his final hours, his God. Oral’s oldest son committed suicide in his 30s due to unrelenting pressure from his father regarding his queer sexuality and desire to remain away from the television spotlight. His oldest daughter died in a plane crash that he mysteriously half-predicted. He was left with his son Richard as the most likely (and least likable) air to his televangelist throne. Always in the spotlight from a young age, Richard became infatuated with fame, which ultimately led to a long history of drug abuse, public infidelity, and the near ruin of his father’s religious empire. Mired in audits, lawsuits, and negative speculation, Oral died reciting a series of his own sermons and prophecies, based on what he had heard from his God. The echo of his ministry lives on in the slowly crumbling university that he left behind, bathed in tarnished gold.

In Hainsworth’s adaptation, O’Daniel approaches Joe with a proposition similar to Oral’s prosperity gospel, but instead of money he asks for Joe’s physical self and his time. Having loosely grown up with an image of the Everyman Jesus in his mind, Joe is quick to listen, but slow to understand the implications of giving his own possessions away to obtain some kind of happiness (or, at least, the illusion of happiness). O’Daniel keeps reappearing throughout the drama representing both a corner of Joe’s conscience and the false promises of such a philosophy. It is less a question of whether Joe would have been less moribund if he had chosen O’Daniel as his companion instead of Ratso and more a series of landmarks pointing out how Joe’s selflessness ultimately fails him over time. Joe is profoundly lonely because he cannot figure out what he wants (as Perry so aptly noted), not for a lack of trying to relate to others. When he gives up Anastasia, Sally, and Bobby respectively so that they can try to make the most of their lives, he sacrifices his own desires. At the end of the drama, Joe is lonely not because he cannot articulate what he wants, but because what he wants and whom he wants to be with have been put out of his reach by forces beyond his control.

An interview with Christina Calvit

Note: This is an interview with Lifeline Theatre ensemble member Christina Calvit, adaptor of our Fall MainStage production of Miss Buncle’s Book.

Q: How did you get started with Lifeline?
A: I went to Northwestern with most of the original founders: Meryl Friedman, Steve Totland, Kathee Sills and Sandy Snyder. I knew Steve the best and he recruited me to direct Lifeline’s very first benefit, back (I think) in 1984. It was an adaptation of “Why I Live at the P.O.” My first and last directing gig. Fortunately, my relationship with Lifeline wasn’t so abbreviated.

An early Lifeline ensemble photo, featuring Christina at center.
An early Lifeline ensemble photo, featuring Christina at center.

Q: What led you to theatrical adaptation?
A: In the early 80’s, Northwestern probably had the most robust performance studies program in the country, very influenced by Viola Spolin and Compass Players and all those Second City types. As a theatre major, you pretty much took at least one or two performance studies classes, whether that was interp of poetry or short stories or whatever. So I got a taste there. Then the professors and grad students were all doing much meatier adaptations of actual novels. I remember seeing Sometimes A Great Notion and End of the Road and Bleak House all brilliantly performed. The way people were exploring narrative and narrators blew my mind. I mean, people have been doing theatrical adapations of novels for as long as there have been novels, but what I was seeing at NU was entirely different.

Q: Tell me about an early adaptation experience. What did you discover?
A: It was my very first adaptation of Pride and Prejudice back in 1986…and in previews, it was clocking in at three hours long! Meryl Friedman, who directed, invited a classmate, Michael Grief, to come see the show and give feedback. After the show, they were both up in the back blah, blah blahing and I was like “I have a bad feeling about this.” Meryl came to me later and said I needed to cut some stuff. A lot of stuff. Boy, was I mad. I made the cuts, weepily, and we got the show down by 25 minutes or so. But watching the show during the run, I really saw that they were right and now I’m always interested in hearing feedback about cuts. But I remember at the time I was like, who does Michael think he is? He ended up directing Rent, so he I’m sure he could have given me many more brilliant ideas if I had been prepared to listen.

Q: What’s your favorite part of the process of developing a new script for production?
A: My favorite part is the first production meeting, when all the collaborators get together and talk and brainstorm and start to define the world of the play. I love to hear all the inspiring ideas and listen to people build on each other’s inspiration. We get to work with so many talented designers, dramaturgs and stage managers at Lifeline.

The scariest part is first preview…I always feel like that’s the first time I see the work objectively for what it really is. Sometimes that’s a great thing. And sometimes it’s like “OK, lots to do.” I wish I were better at seeing the big picture earlier.

Christina with author Ron Hansen following a performance of her adaptation of his novel, "Mariette in Ecstasy."
Christina with author Ron Hansen following a performance of her adaptation of his novel, “Mariette in Ecstasy.”

Q: What drew you to Miss Buncle’s Book? Why make it a play and why does it fit this moment in time?
A: Dorothy found this great article by Laurie Notaro (she wrote Autobiography of a Fat Bride, which I’ve always wanted to adapt) called “Toss the Book in Your Purse and Read These Instead.” It was basically “if you’re reading Fifty Shades of Grey, you should be reading Nightingale Wood by Stella Gibbons instead.” The article featured a lot of great forgotten books that are great reading. Miss Buncle’s Book was one of her suggestions. It rocked! Funny, meta, sweet and moving. I loved it. And I thought “the Lifeline ensemble would tear this up.” So I’m over the moon that some of them wanted to do it.

Christina (fifth from left) with the Lifeline ensemble at our 30th Anniversary benefit in 2013.
Christina (fifth from left) with the Lifeline ensemble at our 30th Anniversary benefit in 2013.

Why does it fit in this moment in time? I think the story of a woman coming into her own as a person and an artist is pretty eternal. Most of us feel stuck and squashed at certain times in our lives, which is why I think Miss Buncle’s journey feels as relevant today as it did in the 30’s.

Q: What ideas are you hoping to bring to the material that are specific to you and this production?
A: I think the idea that’s not in the book that most intrigues me in the play is the vision of a person becoming more of herself as she’s discovering what kind of artist she is and what it means to be an artist. The question of “what makes a writer a good writer” is very interesting to me. I think it plays well with the meta storyline (a woman writing a book about a woman writing a book) which is a part of Stevenson’s original vision.

Lifeline ensemble members Jenifer Tyler (as Miss Buncle) and Peter Greenberg (as Mr. Abbott).
Lifeline ensemble members Jenifer Tyler (as Miss Buncle) and Peter Greenberg (as Mr. Abbott).

Q: What do you hope the audience will appreciate most about Silverstream and Miss Buncle as they watch the play?
A: I hope they will be touched by the humanity of all the characters. And I hope they will agree with me that the observation and celebration of the small quirks of regular people in their everyday lives is an art form unto itself.

Q: What do you have coming up after Buncle that you’re particular looking forward to?
A: I’m looking forward to planning my next vacation with my husband. We love to travel. Angkor Wat here we come! Just kidding! But we’d love to!

Focus on Artists’ Lifestyles – A Smattering of Socialite Poets

Note: This is a guest posting from Annaliese McSweeney, dramaturg for our Fall MainStage production of Miss Buncle’s Book.

This article about the poetry and artists’ lifestyle in the 1930s provides insight into the inspiration for the character, Countess Marina Pavlova, in Christina Calvit’s adaptation of Miss Buncle’s Book. Christina created this character to help Miss Buncle on her journey through the play. The character Christina drew is a mix of the figures highlighted below.

Bright Young Things

In the late 1920s in London, a social group emerged that was referred to as the “Bright Young Things”. Described as “attention-seeking, flamboyant, decadent, rebellious, promiscuous, irresponsible, outrageous and glamorous,” they were the original celebrity personalities – defined in the eyes of the public by their raucous parties, bohemian outlooks, public practical jokes and overall extravagance. The movement started with upper class women hosting famous and boisterous treasure hunts all around town. These events attracted young men who, eager to join in the action, provided mobility for the group with their new cars and extended the events to day trips into the countryside. The larger the group, the more elaborate the parties became for the London socialites, the more raucous the nightlife they represented, and the more attention they got from the public. These Bright Young People were from the generation that was too young to fight in World War I but were reacting to the changing circumstances of the waning aristocracy and the rapidly changing social landscape in Britain. The group had an odd mix of the upper class socialites and the hard-core bohemian fringe, both choosing to live lives of leisure, which created an environment for an unusual number of writers, as well as other artists, some more dedicated to and more lasting in their art than others. Within their troupe, they encouraged and supported each other’s projects, particularly in their writing careers. They would publicize each other’s books and some of the higher-class members opened up their homes as meeting spaces. The more affluent members even financially supported writers’ groups in order to feel a greater sense of participation in the movement. By 1931, interest from the press and the public’s infatuation with the group began to wane since the excesses they were displaying became distasteful in the face of worldwide depression; however, some of their number did go on to become quite successful in the artist domain.

Bright Young Things at one of the infamous dress-up parties.
Bright Young Things at one of the infamous dress-up parties.

Here are some of the women who published poetry from the group or profited from writing about the Bright Young Things.

Edith Sitwell – Born into an aristocratic family, she and her two younger brothers had a significant impact on the art world of the 1920s. Influenced by the French symbolist movement, her greatest contribution to the modernist movement was as an editor, but she wrote her own poetry as well. Her work was stylized with a theatrical and grand use of emblems and diction. Robert K Martin explained:

Although she always remained a poet committed to the exploration of sound, she came to use sound patterns as an element in the construction of deep philosophic poems that reflect on her time and on man’s condition. [… She should be remembered as] an angry chronicler of social injustice, as a poet who has found forms adequate to the atomic age and its horrors, and as a foremost poet of love. Her work displays enormous range of subject and of form.

In her social life, she became “passionately attached” to the homosexual Russian painter Pavel Tchelitchew, and she never married. She was a strong advocate of London’s poetic circle, to whom she was unfailingly generous and helpful, even so far as to opening her home up as a meeting place for local poets.

Sylvia Townsend Warner – Educated at home and with a strong musical and literary background, she was first introduced to the writing world by being instrumental in getting Theodore Powys’ novels published. She was primarily a novelist and poet, known for changing the way unmarried women were represented in fiction at the time, but also a talented musicologist, a diarist and letter-writer, a political journalist, an occasional translator and biographer, and a prolific short-story writer. She published a joint collection of poems with Valentine Ackland, her lover in 1933. By 1935, Sylvia and Valentine became committed members of the Communist Party, attending meetings, fund-raising and contributing to left-wing journals.

Nancy Mitford – The eldest of the six legendary Mitford sisters, Nancy was a novelist, biographer, and journalist known for her novels on the upper class social scene and her life in England and France. She began writing in 1929 and her first novel was published in 1931, despite having no prior formal writing training. Her novel was a semi-autobiographical piece about her time as part of the Bright Young Things. During the war, she worked at a bookstore, which became a meeting place for the London literary society and her friends. Her online biography says, “She hid her deepest feelings behind a sparkling flow of jokes and witty turns of phrase, and was the star of any gathering.” Although this quote suggests she was unhappy in her personal life, she found great success later in life as a writer – publishing multiple novels including some worldwide bestsellers.

Anna Akhmatova

Anna Akhmatova is considered one of the greatest women in Russian literature and a political and poetic ideal. Having joined the poetry group Acmeists in St. Petersburg, she married the group’s leader in 1910. After a few years, the two of them moved to Paris to immerse themselves in the culture and gain experiences of the poetic lifestyle abroad. Upon returning to Russia as a leader of Acmeism in her own right, she praised the virtues of lucid, carefully crafted verse in reaction to the vagueness of the Symbolist style that dominated the Russian literary scene of the period. To the group’s ideals, Akhmatova added her own elegant colloquialisms and psychological sophistication that demonstrated full control of the subtle vocabulary of modern intimacies and romance. In her writing, a small detail could and was meant to evoke a whole gamut of emotions. Her first collections were published as early as 1912, but in 1917 her primary themes of tragic love morphed to include the civic, patriotic, and religious motifs of the changing Russian society; however, she did not sacrifice her artistic conscience and personal intensity in developing her style. Her personal life was rocky and hindered by the political landscape in Russia at the time. In 1921, her ex-husband was executed under the new regime, and during the 1930s her son and her third husband were imprisoned while a close friend died in a concentration camp. She didn’t publish any poetry between 1921 and 1940 as there was an unofficial ban on her poetry by the government. During this time she took on other forms of literary work – translations, as well as literary criticism. Throughout her career, while she faced plenty of government opposition, she was beloved by the Russian people because she refused to abandon her country in their difficult political times.

Sources and Further Reading

Academy of American Poets Website. “Anna Akhmatova.” http://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/anna-akhmatova

Freidin, Gregory. “Anna Akhmatova.” Encyclopedia Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/biography/Anna-Akhmatova

Johnson, Ben. “Bright Young Things,” Historic UK. http://www.historic-uk.com/CultureUK/Bright-Young-Things/

The Mitford Archive. “Nancy.” http://www.nancymitford.com/nancy

The Poetry Foundation Website. “Edith Sitwell.” http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/edith-sitwell

Sylvia Townsend Warner Society. “Biography of Sylvia Townsend Warner.” http://www.townsendwarner.com/biography.php

Waters, Sarah. “Sylvia Townsend Warner: the neglected writer.” Appeared in The Guardian on March 2, 2012. http://www.theguardian.com/books/2012.mar/02/sylvia-townsend-warner

Tea Time with Mrs. Featherstone Hogg

 

Note: As an introduction to the world of Silverstream, this narrative account of the characters and the Society they represent has been created by production dramaturg, Annaliese McSweeney, inspired by the characters created by D. E. Stevenson in Miss Buncle’s Book and Christina Calvit’s adaptation of those characters for the stage production.

Martel Manning as Stephen Bulmer, Katie McLean Hainsworth as Mrs. Featherstone Hogg, Kate Hildreth as Mrs. Carter, and Elise Kauzlaric as Vivian Greensleeves
Martel Manning as Stephen Bulmer, Katie McLean Hainsworth as Mrs. Featherstone Hogg, Kate Hildreth as Mrs. Carter, and Elise Kauzlaric as Vivian Greensleeves

Tea Time with Mrs. Featherstone Hogg

Oh dear! Barbara Buncle realized she hadn’t heard a word Sarah Walker was saying. She had let her mind wander once more. But it is just so interesting to watch the people around her! She really should pay better attention to Sarah since she is always there when you need her. She hardly ever overlooks Barbara, and never judges her for her shabby clothes. Sarah’s lack of concern for things like that is probably what has kept Sarah on the outside of the social circles of the likes of Mrs. Featherstone Hogg and Mrs. Carter, but none of that really matters to Sarah, which is what Barbara loves about her. While Sarah was the kindest woman you could ever meet, her stories about her sweet little twins and her good-hearted husband couldn’t keep Miss Buncle’s attention like watching the hustle and bustle of Silverstream society in Mrs. Featherstone Hogg’s drawing room.

Speaking of, Barbara’s eyes catch the flashy host of this afternoon’s tea. As the richest lady in town, Mrs. Featherstone Hogg regularly hosts an afternoon tea party with a poetry reading in her home to help improve the lives of those around her, if only she could serve better coffee! Considered “new money” and filled with ideas of her own self-importance, she is constantly trying to impress the other wealthy neighbors and to assert her position of influence in the town. She does not speak much to Barbara, of course, because she is such an unimportant person, but when she does, Barbara could not help feeling it was good of Mrs. Featherstone Hogg to bother to speak to her at all. Mr. Featherstone Hogg is more tolerable, but has no problem letting his wife run the show; after all, it is easier than fighting with her. The town only ever takes notice of him as Mrs. Featherstone Hogg’s husband, not a person in his own right.

Miss Buncle’s thoughts wander to Colonel Weatherhead who is talking to his neighbor, Mrs. Dorthea Bold. Since he retired from the army, he can spend his days as he wishes, often at teatime with other members of the landed gentry. He is gallant and jocular and the ladies appreciate his social mannerisms. A kind man at heart, he is accustomed to helping and serving others when needed, but he also enjoys a good fight with the plants in his garden. Colonel Weatherhead often helps Mrs. Dorthea Bold deal with pesky workmen who don’t take a woman seriously. Widowed and living in her grand home alone, she is always bright and cheery and despite the workmen, tremendously independent. Barbara really must make plans to have Dorthea over for tea soon.

Mrs. Bulmer gets up to make her excuses to leave, a typical occurrence. Every time, Margaret heads home early to put the children down for their nap before Stephen tries to work on his book. Living a privileged life, Stephen has dedicated his days to writing the Life of Henry the Fourth, but everyone knows he does so very seriously. In fact, Margaret has to be careful not to cross him. That is very difficult, however, when he is ever so touchy and sometimes the neighbors do notice (although they always pretend not to). Needless to say, the atmosphere at the Bulmer’s home is a little tense, but Barbara has never heard Margaret complain because she loves her darling children so much, which is more important than her own peace of mind.

Mrs. Goldsmith interrupts Barbara’s thoughts by offering her a fresh scone. The town baker, Mrs. Goldsmith knows each member’s routine and what type of bread they prefer, and Barbara wonders what other secrets she knows. Not invited as a guest, Mrs. Goldsmith is working this afternoon and has only stopped here to drop off the fresh baked goods.

Before she leaves, Mrs. Goldsmith stops to say hello to Mr. Dick, Mr. Fortunum, and Mr. Durnet. Barbara thinks to herself that they look a bit out of place in this setting, staying off to their own, and talking among themselves on their brief break before heading back to their normal lives and jobs. Mr. Dick runs the local guesthouse at which Mr. Fortunum has staying and Mr. Durnet is working class, but old and hard of hearing and everyone just puts up with him.

Barbara notices a few new faces in the room. That young woman next to Mrs. Carter must be her granddaughter; although Barbara thought she was much younger by the way Mrs. Carter had talked about her. Mrs. Carter is from an old Society family in Silverstream with quite a bit of influence in London, even if she is an old stick in the mud. Of an older generation with charm and manners, she is regular entertainer and friendly with most of the ladies of the town. Having been neighbors for a long time, Barbara and Mrs. Carter get along just fine, although her options of the “youth” these days are a bit old fashioned for Barbara’s tastes. Perhaps living her young granddaughter will change that.

Her granddaughter, Barbara seems to remember was her name was Sally, seems interesting. On the surface she looks spunky and free-spirited. According to her grandmother, Sally has been living in town (London) with her father who is an influential diplomat and traveling the world entertaining her father’s acquaintances. Sally has no problem speaking her mind, as Barbara has already seen her speak up excitedly in response to prim grandmother. Barbara wonders if she could be the breath of fresh air Silverstream needs.

Vivian Greensleeves is talking to another new face, the new vicar, Ernest Hathaway. Barbara has heard some interesting rumors about Ernest. The only son of a wealthy investor, he has come to town to follow in the footsteps of his uncle, who is also a religious man. An intellectual, generous, and good-hearted man, Ernest seems to be settling into caring for this town and tending to its flock well. With a privileged background and high quality tastes, no wonder he has attracted the attention of Mrs. Greensleeves. She is pretty woman who enjoys pretty things. Originally from town, Barbara suspects she only moved to the country because she is cutting back since her husband’s death. In any case, this new scheme of hers will be interesting to watch unfold.

In another corner, Isabella Snowdon is sitting with Miss King and Miss Pretty. Miss Snowdon is the righteous and proud daughter of another higher-class family still living at home. Quick to talk of her own accomplishments, she is not always the best listener. Miss King and Miss Pretty are two unmarried orphans, who have intertwined their lives to look after one another. They are regulars about town together and Barbara quite enjoys their company. They compliment each other well – Miss King is bold, forward, and confident, whereas Miss pretty is docile and tends to “lean” on others. They have a nice quiet life, with just enough to be comfortable without worry, although Barbara wonders if Silverstream is a little too dull for them.

Barbara’s attention snaps back to Sarah talking about her husband, who is the town doctor. John is a kind, well-respected Scotsman, with no patience for fake illnesses. Like her husband, Sarah is intelligent enough to help anyone, even her husband, work through the most difficult problems, although she would never talk about it to anyone else. Sarah is a genuine and transparent person, which is a rare thing in Silverstream, indeed! Just as Sarah asks Barbara her opinion on the subject, and Barbara is about to be caught out for not paying attention, Mrs. Featherstone Hogg calls the ladies and gentlemen in her drawing room to attention. It was time to begin the poetry reading. This class of people is expected to be refined and cultured, and if Mrs. Featherstone Hogg needs to be the one to make sure that happens, she is willing to take on that task, if only to prove that she can do it.

Who is D. E. Stevenson?

Note: This is a guest posting from Annaliese McSweeney, dramaturg for our Fall MainStage production of Miss Buncle’s Book.

DES

Meet Dorothy Emily Stevenson. She was the kind of woman who wrote on the sofa with her feet up and a green baize board on her lap while she smoked her cigarettes. She was a devoted wife, mother of four, and a “lovely cuddly granny” who played Scrabble with her granddaughters. But also, she was the author of over forty-five novels that were written throughout sixty years, including Miss Buncle’s Book, the source material for Lifeline’s upcoming fall production. A prolific writer during her lifetime, she was an international bestseller and to this day she has an international fan club who affectionately call themselves “Dessies” after her.

Dorothy Stevenson was born in Edinburgh in 1892. Her father was a lighthouse engineer and she enjoyed a privileged upbringing. While she was well-educated by a series of governesses at home, her father refused to send her to college because as she said in an interview, “he didn’t want a blue stocking girl in the family,” meaning that he thought it was improper to have an intellectual or literary young woman in the household. He simply did not think that it was worthwhile to educate a woman beyond primary school. Stevenson had showed an interest in writing from the age of eight, although she often had to hide her poetry and stories from her family due to their disapproval, and began publishing her writings in 1915. In 1916, at the age of 24, she married Captain James Reid Pepole and began to keep a diary about her life as an army wife. She had four children before 1930, the eldest of which died while away at school in 1928.

Although she had previously published some books of her poetry, her first novel, Peter West, was published in 1923 and was not very successful. Her second attempt fiction was a happy accident that was inspired by her own diary. She had lent it to a friend whose daughter was marrying a lieutenant in order to give her an idea of what life as a service wife would be like, but the friend liked the writing so much that her family read it aloud and laughed so hard they cried. They encouraged Stevenson to publish it, but instead she drew on it to write what would later become Mrs. Tim of the Regiment in 1932. Mrs. Tim has gone on to become one of Stevenson’s most beloved and popular characters. It was through this story that Stevenson recognized and developed her skill for characterization and her interest in interpersonal relationships of everyday life. She wrote another book before publishing Miss Buncle’s Book in 1934, the first of another series of one of Stevenson’s most beloved characters. Both Mrs. Tim and Miss Buncle have become staples of Stevenson’s stories, each having their own series of books as well as being woven into other stories and making cameo appearances in other books. Stevenson’s worlds of her books were often intertwined, so her characters were able to visit one another from time to time. Stevenson more or less wrote a novel a year from then until 1969. That year her husband passed away and it was to be the end of her writing career as well. She passed away in 1973 and is buried with her husband in their hometown of Moffat, where she and her family lived for nearly 30 years. Over her lifetime Stevenson published over 45 novels, and three have been published posthumously.

D. E. Stevenson is most commonly remembered for her “light romantic novels,” although over the course of her career she also wrote in a variety of genres: war novels, science fiction, and a few spy thrillers. Much of her work could be described as “fictional biographies,” but she also demonstrated the ability to move outside of her comfort zone in terms of content. While her body of work as a whole is difficult to categorize, her stories are always driven by character development and rich personalities. Her books look at the intricacies of the human condition and are filled with the nuances, manners, and details of the historical period, which make them familiar and yet unique. Through it all, her light-handed humor makes it all the more enjoyable.

In recent years there has been renewed interest in the novels of D. E. Stevenson, despite the fact that many of her books were out of print for quite some time. More than four million of her books had been sold in Great Britain alone, with another three million sold in the United States and there was always an active demand for them in the second-hand market. In 2008, Miss Buncle’s Book was re-published by Persephone Books, followed shortly by Mrs. Tim of the Regiment by Bloomsbury Books in 2009. Since then, three other Miss Buncle books have been re-published as well as four of her other books. After her death, three unknown novels were found and published by her granddaughter, who also later published two unfinished manuscripts. The Dessies, Stevenson’s fan club, have a worldwide following with members in America, Canada, France, Australia, New Zealand, Scotland, Northern Ireland and England. They keep in touch through the Internet and attribute new technology with a having a hand in bringing them together and renewing interest in D. E. Stevenson’s books. Many of them traveled to her hometown for the champagne toast and reveal of her previously unpublished novels in 2011.

“I am grateful for all my blessings; amongst them the Gift of Storytelling, which seems to please and amuse so many people all over the world.”

DES to American friend Jewelene Epps Jones, November 1973

Sources and Further Reading

D. E. Stevenson Website maintained by Susan Dot Daly:
http://dalyght.ca/DEStevenson/index.html

D. E. Stevenson Website maintained by Susan Monahan:
http://www.dalyght.ca/DEStevenson/des_monahan/index.html

“Staying Power” article by Mary Smith as appeared in Dumfries & Galloway Life in April 2011:
http://www.dalyght.ca/DEStevenson/smitharticle.pdf

For a complete listing of D. E. Stevenson’s books:
http://www.anglophilebooks.com/desbib.htm

SOON I WILL BE INVINCIBLE: Character Reference Part 2

Note: This is a guest posting from Jason A. Fleece, dramaturg for our summer MainStage production of Soon I Will Be Invincible.

In my earlier blog posts, I discussed the history of superhero fiction to give a context for the tropes and traditions that inform the world of Soon I Will Be Invincible. The main work that I did for this production, though, was to contextualize the characters of the play by drawing connections to superheroes and supervillains of (mostly) the Big Two, and to give the cast reading lists of the superhero fiction that inspired their roles.

Last time, I covered the two primary characters of Soon I Will Be Invincible, Fatale and Dr. Impossible. Today I’m going to cover some of the other heroes of The Champions.

Corefire

CoreFire costume rendering by Lifeline ensemble member Aly Renee AmideiCoreFire is pretty obviously Superman, but that leaves us with lots of room for interpretation. Which version of Superman? Which elements of Superman?

Superman was the very first superhero, created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster and debuting in Action Comics #1 in 1938.

Superman was born Kal-El, the lone survivor of the planet Krypton.

Well, lone other than Supergirl. And General Zod. And all the other criminals in the Phantom Zone. And Krypto the Superdog. And all the people living in the shrunken bottle city of Kandor.

Lone is a relative term.

His father, Jor-El, knew of his planet’s impending doom and, when the powers that be refused to heed his warnings, saved his infant son by putting him in a rocket to Earth. Raised by the Kents, farmers from Smallville, he was given the name Clark and believes in helping everyone—no matter what. Clark works as a reporter at the Daily Planet in Metropolis, and saves the world every day.

Early Superman comics depicted Clark Kent as a rough-and-tumble young socialist hero, exacting violent vengeance on slumlords and abusive husbands.

This version of Superman was edgier than you might expect, less interested in upholding the law than in doing what was right. At the start, Superman’s abilities were more limited—he could leap an eighth of a mile, “nothing less than a bursting shell” could pierce his skin—but eventually his strength increased and his leaping became full-fledged flight. He would later gain powers like heat vision, x-ray vision, and super ice breath.

In the 1950s and 1960s Superman’s rebellious ways made way to an avuncular figure of paternal authority. The advent of the Comics Code and the relative lack of popularity of the superhero led his stories to become weird sci- fi, as red kryptonite or magic would make him behave strangely . . . or he’d take ever more bizarre journeys into space and undergo weird transformations . . . or he’d spend time gaslighting the two women vying for his affection, Lois Lane and Lana Lang, or torturing poor Jimmy Olsen.

He seemed to gain more increasingly strange superpowers as the writers needed them: super- ventriloquism, super-hypnotism, a super-homunculus that would come out of his hands to do things for him.

As the Silver Age waned and the 1980s and 1990s began, comics started to trend away from madcap fantasy and into more “realistic” stories. This led to a sadder, more elegiac Superman who struggled with his responsibilities and dealt with threats that he couldn’t punch his way out of.

In the early 1990s Superman died, killed while saving Metropolis from Doomsday. He got better. He also had a mullet for a while. Then he turned blue. It was the nineties.

During all of this, he revealed his secret identity to Lois Lane and they got married. It was kind of a big deal.

In 2011, when DC rebooted their entire line, they wiped Superman’s story clean. Superman was no longer married, Lois never knew his identity, and so on. His costume was tweaked several times, and elements of his Golden Age exploits crept back in.

Superman has always been my favorite superhero. He’s inspirational. He makes you want to stand up straight and to help a stranger.

CoreFire Recommended Reading and Viewing:

Action Comics #1 (1938) by Siegel and Shuster Superman
For the Man Who Has Everything by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons
Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow by Moore and Curt Swan
Superman: For All Seasons by Jeph Loeb and Tim Sale
Kingdom Come by Mark Waid and Alex Ross
Superman Birthright by Mark Waid and Leniel Francis Yu
All-Star Superman by Grant Morrison and Frank Quitely
Superman/Batman: Public Enemies by Jeph Loeb and Ed McGuinness
Action Comics #775 by Joe Kelly, Doug Mankhe and Lee Bermejo
Superman: Red Son by Mark Millar, Dave Johnson and Killian Plunkett
Irredeemable by Mark Waid and Peter Krause
(this isn’t technically a Superman story, but it’s a great deconstruction of Superman using an obvious Superman analogue)
Supreme Power by J. Michael Straczynski and Gary Frank (another deconstruction that doesn’t actually star Superman and the rest of the Justice League but is still definitely that)

Damsel

Damsel costume rendering by Lifeline ensemble member Aly Renee AmideiLegacy is a particularly important theme in superhero comics, particularly in DC Comics. Batman trains sidekicks, and in fact has had five prominent Robins, three Batgirls, and a Bluebird. Dick Grayson, Jean-Paul Valley, and Terry McGuinness have all been Batman instead of or alongside Bruce Wayne. There have been several different Flashes. Three Wildcats. A whole Corps of Green Lanterns (and Yellow Lanterns, and Blue, and Red, and so on).

In Soon I Will Be Invincible, Damsel is the daughter of a Golden Age superhero and an alien princess. DC Comics’ Black Canary, as specifically the daughter of another Black Canary, is probably the closest analogue.

Black Canary, in most incarnations, is Dinah Laurel Lance, daughter of Dinah Lance (nee Drake), the first Black Canary, and Larry Lance, a Gotham City police detective. Dinah grew up around the Justice Society and had decided as a child that she wanted to be a part of that community, although her mother did not at first approve. She received training from Ted Grant, a boxer and the superhero Wildcat.

Dinah has a superpower, the “Canary Cry,” a sonic scream that can be used as a weapon.

The thing that has always been most fascinating about Dinah as a legacy hero is her status as a lynchpin of the superhero community.

Dinah has been a member of the Justice League—a founding member in some continuities, the leader in some incarnations. Through the League she met her eventual husband, Oliver Queen, the Green Arrow. Dinah and Ollie’s relationship is often volatile, as Ollie is a womanizer and a rogue, and Dinah has a tremendous amount of pride and self- respect. Their marriage fell apart when Ollie killed a supervillain in cold blood as retribution for the death of his former sidekick’s infant daughter.

She worked with fellow superheroes The Huntress and Oracle as one of the Birds of Prey. She helped Oliver’s sidekick, Roy, overcome his addiction to heroin, and had a very protective attitude toward him.

Unfortunately, Much of this continuity was erased with the reboot of the DC Universe in 2011. Dinah now has a completely different history, including time as a government operative and soon as the frontman for an indy rock band—but those changes occurred after Austin Grossman wrote his novel, and it’s certainly the pre-reboot version of Dinah that inspired Damsel.

Damsel is also an alien princess, much like DC Comics’ Starfire, the alien princess from the planet Tamaran who fled her tyrant sister to and eventually became a member of the Teen Titans.

Damsel Recommended Reading and Viewing:

Birds of Prey, Vol. 1: Of Like Minds by Gail Simone & Ed Benes
JLA: Year One by Mark Waid & Barry Kitson
Green Arrow/Black Canary: For Better Or For Worse by various
Teen Titans Animated Series (2003-2006) has a really quirky take on Starfire
Watchmen by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons (Damsel is also quite reminiscent of the Silk Spectre)

Blackwolf

Blackwolf costume rendering by Lifeline ensemble member Aly Renee AmideiBlackwolf, the non-superhuman who is at the peak of mental and physical training who beats the crap out of criminals, has cool gadgets, and is very much the brains of his team of heroes, is primarily an analogue of DC Comics’ Batman.

Batman was created in 1939 by Bob Kane and Bill Finger as an attempt to capitalize on the success of Superman (at the time, Action Comics and Detective Comics were not owned by the same publishers).

Inspired by The Shadow, Zorro, and the Scarlet Pimpernel, Batman is a terrifying figure of the night who uses fear and theatrics to fight crime.

Bruce Wayne, of course, was the son of a wealthy doctor, orphaned as a young child when his parents were gunned down in the street by a mugger. Understanding that “criminals are a superstitious and cowardly lot,” Bruce took on the identity of Batman, donning a cape and cowl and patrolling Gotham City. Bruce trained his entire life to become a perfect physical specimen, the World’s Greatest Detective, and a brilliant tactical mind.

Batman has always been particularly interesting as part of a team, whether that team is made up of his confidantes and proteges (such as his butler Alfred, police commissioner Jim Gordon, and various Robins and Batgirls and others) or made up of more colorful and more powerful heroes like the Justice League or the Outsiders.

He always becomes the leader of the group, running operations, planning battle tactics, and keeping the team working like a well-oiled machine. At the same time, however, Batman tends to be gruff and somewhat secretive, leading to frustration among the group.

Blackwolf Recommended Reading/Viewing:

There are countless great Batman stories that speak to Batman’s motivation as a terrifying creature of the night, and if this was a play about Blackwolf I’d list far more of them than I do below, but what I’d really like to focus on are stories that speak to Batman and how he works as part of a team.

Batman and the Outsiders Vol 1 by Mike W. Barr and Jim Aparo
Kingdom Come by Mark Waid and Alex Ross
JLA: New World Order by Grant Morrison and Howard Porter
JLA: Earth 2 by Grant Morrison and Frank Quitely
JLA: Tower of Babel by Mark Waid and Howard Porter
JLA: Divided We Fall by Mark Waid and Bryan Hitch
Batman and Son by Grant Morrison and Andy Kubert
Justice League Unlimited, Season 1/Episode 5 (“This Little Piggy”) and Season 2/Episode 13 (“Epilogue”)

While Batman is certainly the primary influence on Blackwolf, he is a little bit more of a rogue, a little more fun, than the Dark Knight. I see a bit of Marvel’s Iron Man, Captain America, and Wolverine in Blackwolf—all three are dynamic leaders, brilliant tactical minds, and/or rakish and charismatic heroes with an edge. Here’s some non-Batman-related reading/viewing that I think would also be informative:

Iron Man (2008 film)
The Avengers (2012 film)
Old Man Logan by Mark Millar and Steve McNiven
Wolverine and the X-Men Vol 1 by Jason Aaron and Chris Bachalo

Elphin

Elphin costume rendering by Lifeline ensemble member Aly Renee AmideiElphin is one of the less obvious analogues in Soon I Will Be Invincible.

She’s a champion of an ancient mythology that no longer exists and/or is no longer being worshipped. She uses a mystical artifact to fight crime and to aid her teammates as a superhero.

I think she’s equal parts Thor and Wonder Woman.

Created in 1962 by Stan Lee, Larry Lieber and Jack Kirby, Thor is Marvel’s version of the ancient Norse God. He is the God of Thunder, the son of Odin the All- Father, the brother of Loki, the God of Mischief.

In the Marvel Comics continuity, it is unclear whether the Asgardian pantheon are actual gods, or advanced celestial beings who might as well be gods.
In any case, the Marvel version of Thor, after displeasing his father Odin, was banished to Midgard (Earth) to inhabit the body of a handicapped physician, Donald Blake. Eventually, this was retconned—Blake turned out to have always been Thor, his memories and life an illusion created by Odin to teach Thor humility—and Thor abandoned the Donald Blake identity.

Thor’s mystical hammer, Mjolnir, can only be lifted by someone who is deemed worthy.

Other people who have lifted Thor’s hammer include Captain America, Storm of the X-Men, an alien with a horse head called Beta Ray Bill, and also a frog who was transformed into Throg, the Frog of Thunder.

Currently, Thor is no longer worthy (we still don’t know why) and can no longer lift his hammer. He has been replaced by a new female Thor, whose identity I won’t spoil here for those of you who want to discover the comics for yourselves.

Elphin also resembles DC’s most prominent female superhero, Wonder Woman. Wonder Woman was created in 1941 by William Moulton Marston, who also happens to be the inventor of the polygraph machine. Also known as Diana of Themyscira and as Diana Prince, Wonder Woman is the daughter of Hippolyta, and comes from an all-female society of Amazon warriors. Most versions of the story say that Diana was made from clay and given life by the Greek Gods. More recently, it was revealed that Diana is actually the daughter of Zeus and that the clay thing was a ruse meant to keep the god Hera, Zeus’ wife, from murdering her out of jealousy. Either way, Diana is steeped in Greek mythology.

Wonder Woman carries with her a magical golden lasso, which compels anyone bound by it to tell the truth. She also wears a pair of magic bracelets that she uses to deflect bullets. If Wonder Woman’s wrists are bound together, she is rendered powerless. In some stories, Wonder Woman pilots an invisible jet; in others she can just fly, no jet needed.

The tone of Wonder Woman’s stories varies wildly. Early stories were weirdly kinky, making overt references to bondage and commenting that slavery and submission were good as long as you had a kind master.

For a while in the 1960s, Diana was a secret agent, with a racially insensitive Asian caricature named I Ching as her mentor. Her costume and powers were gone, and she was known for her mod wardrobe. Gloria Steinem was very upset by this version of Wonder Woman.

Many stories in the 1990s and 2000s emphasized the dichotomy of a warrior Amazon trying to be a symbol of peace.

In current comics, she has become the God of War after Ares’ death, and also is in a romantic relationship with Superman.

While Elphin is a close comparison to Thor and Wonder Woman in the broad strokes, the mythology Grossman uses as her background is the world of Faerie, which is drawn from equal parts Shakespeare, Celtic mythology, and other Pagan myths.

Elphin Recommended Reading/Viewing:

Essential Thor Vol 1 by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby
Thor Vol 1 by Walter Simonson
Thor (2011 film)
The Greatest Wonder Woman Stories Ever Told by various
Wonder Woman: The Circle by Gail Simone and Terry Dodson
Brian Azzarello and Cliff Chiang’s run on the Wonder Woman comic, which have been collected in six volumes
A Midsummer Night’s Dream by William Shakespeare
The Sandman by Neil Gaiman and various artists (Gaiman’s seminal comic has several appearances of the faerie world and Titania that I believe are a major influence on Grossman’s character)

Mister Mystic

Mr. Mystic costume rendering by Lifeline ensemble member Aly Renee AmideiMister Mystic is a sorcerer, a mystical gatekeeper who handles the threats that his companions, based as they are in science and the empirical world, cannot fathom. He is almost certainly based on Marvel Comics’ Doctor Strange.

Created by Steve Ditko in 1963, Dr. Stephen Strange was a gifted neurosurgeon. After breaking his hands in a car accident, Strange lost dexterity and control of his fingers and was unable to continue operating. His quest to regain his abilities as a surgeon led him to the Himalayas, where he became an apprentice to the Ancient One. Eventually, Strange surpassed the Ancient One and became the Sorcerer Supreme.

Strange lives in his Sanctum Sanctorum in Greenwich Village with his manservant, Wong, and protects the Marvel Universe from mystical threats. Dr. Strange has been an Avenger and a Defender.

Among Doctor Strange’s most trusted confidantes are Brother Voodoo, a psychiatrist from Haiti and powerful houngan, and Clea, the niece of the Dread Dormammu.

Early Dr. Strange comics were known for their complicated and psychedelic artwork. Another distinguishing feature of Dr. Strange comics is the detailed mythology of The Book of Vishanti, the Eye of Agamotto, the Crystal of Cytorrak, Baron Mordo, Dormammu, The Mindless Ones, Raggadorr, Watoomb, and so on.

While Dr. Strange is arguably the most prominent mystical hero in comics, there are many others, particularly in the DC Universe, including Dr. Fate, The Spectre, Zatanna, and John Constantine.

Mister Mystic Recommended Reading:

Marvel Masterworks: Doctor Strange, Vol 1 by Stan Lee & Steve Ditko
Doctor Strange: The Oath by Brian K. Vaughn & Marcos Martin
Doctor Strange & Doctor Doom: Triumph & Torment by Roger Stern & Mike Mignola
The Books of Magic by Neil Gaiman, Roger Zelazny, John Bolton, Scott Hampton & Charles Vess
John Constantine Hellblazer: Newcastle by Jamie Delano, Richard Piers Rayner & Mark Buckingham
John Constantine Hellblazer: Dangerous Habits by Garth Ennis & William Simpson

Rainbow Triumph

Rainbow Triumph costume rendering by Lifeline ensemble member Aly Renee AmideiRainbow Triumph is Blackwolf’s sidekick, and owes a major debt to the very first sidekick in comics: Robin.

The original Robin made his debut in Detective Comics #38 in April of 1940. He was Dick Grayson, a young acrobat who was taken in by Bruce Wayne as his ward after Dick’s aerialist parents were murdered in front of him. Eventually, Dick outgrew the Robin identity and became Nightwing, a hero in his own right. Currently, Dick Grayson is believed by most to be dead and has infiltrated the spy organization Spyral under orders from Batman.

After Dick Grayson became Nightwing, Bruce soon took in another ward, Jason Todd. Jason was a street kid, who Batman first met boosting the tires off of the Batmobile. Jason was more rebellious and difficult than his predecessor, and his relationship with Batman was not nearly as smooth. Jason was killed by the Joker—beaten with a crowbar and then blown up. Jason eventually returned from the grave and now fights crime as the Red Hood.

Despite Jason’s death, Batman has continued to have teenage protégés who use the Robin identity, including Tim Drake, Stephanie Brown, Carrie Kelley, and most recently Damien Wayne, Batman’s son with the villainous Talia al Ghul. Batman has had other sidekicks as well, including several Batgirls, the Spoiler, and Bluebird.

Robin was the first, but there have been many other superhero sidekicks over the years, including Bucky (Captain America’s sidekick), Kid Flash (The Flash’s sidekick), Speedy (Green Arrow’s sidekick), and Wonder Girl (Wonder Woman’s sidekick).

It is not uncommon for a superhero sidekick to take over the identity of their mentor. Wally West and Bart Allen (Kid Flash and Impulse) have both done stints as The Flash. Dick Grayson was Batman for a bit when Bruce Wayne was dead (he got better), and many stories have implied that Damian Wayne will one day become the Batman. Bucky Barnes was Captain America for a while when Steve Rogers was dead (he also got better). Often, kid sidekicks will team up and have adventures without their mentors, forming groups like the Teen Titans, the Young Allies, and Young Justice.

Rainbow Triumph Recommended Reading/Viewing:

Batman: Dark Victory by Jeph Loeb and Tim Sale
Batman: A Death in the Family by Jim Starlin and Jim Aparo
Batman: A Lonely Place of Dying by Marv Wolfman and George Perez
Batman and Robin: Batman Reborn by Grant Morrison and Frank Quitely
Batman and Robin: The Pearl by Peter Tomasi and Patrick Gleason
Batman: The Movie (1966), starring Adam West and Burt Ward
The Flash: Born to Run by Mark Waid and Tom Peyer
Impulse: Reckless Youth by Mark Waid and Humberto Ramos
Young Avengers by Allan Heinberg and Jim Cheung
Young Avengers Vol 1 by Kieron Gillen and Jamie McKelvie

Epilogue

I could go on. I haven’t covered the mysterious Lily, or the robot Galatea, or the edgy crusaders of the Chaos Pact—not to mention the evil Baron Ether or the nefarious Nick Napalm. But I can’t give away all of our secrets, True Believers. You’ve got to see the rest for yourselves when you come see Soon I Will Be Invincible.

Maybe I’ll see you there. Until then, Make Mine Lifeline!

SOON I WILL BE INVINCIBLE: Character Reference Part 1

Note: This is a guest posting from Jason A. Fleece, dramaturg for our summer MainStage production of Soon I Will Be Invincible.

In my previous blog posts, I discussed the history of superhero fiction to give a context for the tropes and traditions that inform the world of Soon I Will Be Invincible. The main work that I did for this production, though, was to contextualize the characters of the play by drawing connections to superheroes and supervillains of (mostly) the Big Two, and to give the cast reading lists of the superhero fiction that inspired their roles.

Today I’m going to discuss the two primary characters of Soon I Will Be Invincible: Fatale and Dr. Impossible.

Fatale

Fatale costume rendering by Lifeline ensemble member Aly Renee Amidei

Fatale is probably the member of the Champions who is least derivative of a specific character or archetype in the superhero canon. While there isn’t a one-to-one comparison between Fatale and a specific character from the big two, she is still built (see what I did there?) from two major comic book traditions.

The first is the long tradition of the no-longer-human everyperson who looks at their powers and abilities as a curse, even while using them for good. My favorite example of this is Marvel Comics’ The Thing. The Thing was created by Stan Lee & Jack Kirby in 1961 for Marvel Comics as part of the Fantastic Four.

Benjamin J. Grimm, a working class guy born on the Lower East Side, was a former Air Force pilot who helped his best friend, Reed Richards, hijack an experimental spaceship (along with fellow scientist Susan Storm and her brother Johnny). When the ship was bombarded with cosmic rays, all four of those on board gained fantastic abilities. Ben got the short end of the stick: while he gained super strength, stamina, and invulnerability, he was covered in a rocky orange hide. He is extremely heavy and has been known to accidentally damage furniture and other objects, and considers himself to be grotesque. Still, he is a devoted member of the Fantastic Four and uses his powers to help his “family” save the world as the Ever-Lovin’ Blue-Eyed Thing, while hoping that someday his super-genius friend can make him “human” again.

The Thing is the down-to-earth, beating heart of the Fantastic Four. While the rest of his teammates are being famous or making breakthroughs in scientific research, Ben is hosting a regular recurring poker game with the other heroes of the Marvel Universe.

Many of the X-Men fit into this category as well, “hated and feared by those who they are sworn to protect” and suffering from powers that render themselves ugly or dangerous or both.

Fatale, made part machine after a horrific accident, also belongs to a long line of cybernetically enhanced operative superheroes such as Cyborg. Marv Wolfman and George Perez created Cyborg as part of their groundbreaking run on The New Teen Titans for DC Comics in 1980.

After a terrible accident (or an attack from a giant monster, or an attack from Darkseid, depending on the continuity), his father used experimental technology to keep him alive.

Now that technology gives him superhuman abilities, and he’s a member of the Teen Titans. He lives in fear of losing his humanity. In more recent years he has been reimagined as a member of the Justice League and will be getting his own comic series for the first time this summer.

Another example of this trope is Marvel Comics’ Deathlok. The original Deathlok first appeared in Marvel Comics’ Astonishing Tales #25 by Doug Moench and Rick Butler. He was Luther Manning, a soldier from Detroit who died and was reanimated in the terrifying post-apocalyptic future of 1990 as a cyborg assassin, yearning to be human and to have his autonomy back. As Deathlok he had various weapons implanted on him, super strength, augmented senses and brain capacity, and sometimes rocket boots. There have been many different incarnations of Deathlok—most recently Mike Peterson, a character on the TV show Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.—with varying origins and identities, but all have been cyborg assassins being manipulated and forced to carry out missions against their will.

It’s worth noting that the primary influences on Fatale—The Thing, Cyborg, and Deathlok—are all men, while Fatale’s femininity is also an important aspect of the character. While those guys are certainly the template for Fatale’s place in the superhero pantheon, I also recommended that Christina Hall look at the stories of a few important superheroines: She-Hulk and Jessica Jones.

Fatale doesn’t have a secret identity, and her superhero career is just that–a career. There are a number of superheroes in this vein, such as She-Hulk, created in 1980 by Stan Lee and John Buscema.

Jennifer Walters was a promising attorney when an accident required a blood transfusion from her cousin: Bruce Banner, the Incredible Hulk. Jennifer gained a milder version of Bruce’s condition, becoming super-strong and large and green, but retaining her intellect and control. While Jennifer has been an Avenger, a Defender, a Hero for Hire, and a member of the Fantastic Four, she continues to practice law. She is a trial attorney specializing in Superhero-related cases.

Fatale’s ambivalence to the superhero world and feeling of a lack of connection to it reminds me a great deal of Jessica Jones, created by Brian Michael Bendis and Michael Gaydos in 2001 for Marvel Comics.

When Jessica Jones was a teenager, she and her family were in a car accident with a military convoy carrying radioactive chemicals. Her parents were killed in the crash, but Jessica gained superpowers. Jessica had a brief career as the superhero Jewel, but that career was traumatic and not terribly successful. After a horrific experience with the Daredevil villain The Purple Man, Jessica left the superhero business and became a private detective. Jessica is now a member of the Mighty Avengers, primarily in an advisory capacity and without a secret identity. Jessica will be played by Kristyn Ritter in the Netflix series AKA Jessica Jones later this year.

Fatale Recommended Reading:

About The Thing:
Essential Fantastic Four Vol. 1 by Lee & Kirby
Fantastic Four: Trial of Galactus by John Byrne
Fantastic Four Vol 4: Hereafter by Mark Waid & Mike Wieringo

About Cyborg:
New Teen Titans Vol 1 by Wolfman & Perez
Justice League Vol 1: Origin by Johns & Lee

About She-Hulk:
She-Hulk Vol. 1: Single Green Female by Dan Slott & Juan Bobillo
She-Hulk Vol. 1: Law and Disorder by Charles Soule and Javier Pulido
(yes, they’re both volume one, comics are weird.)

About Jessica Jones:
Alias Vol 1 by Brian Michael Bendis & Michael Gaydos
Alias Vol 2: Come Home by Bendis & Gaydos
Alias Vol 3: The Underneath by Bendis & Gaydos
Alias Vol 4: The Secret Origin of Jessica Jones by Bendis & Gaydos

Doctor Impossible

Dr. Impossible costume rendering by Lifeline ensemble member Aly Renee Amidei

Soon I Will Be Invincible‘s Doctor Impossible comes from a long line of egomaniacal genius supervillains. These guys are brilliant minds who could probably cure cancer if they weren’t instead trying to take over the world and/or destroy their heroic nemeses. These super geniuses can only be held in prison if they want to be there and tend to have an unending supply of henchmen.

The most obvious analogue to our dear doctor is Lex Luthor, Superman’s archenemy. We’ll start there.

Lex debuted in 1940 in Action Comics #23 and was created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster.

Alexander Joseph “Lex” Luthor has had many, many different incarnations in comics, television, and movies. Sometimes he’s a mad-scientist supervillain bent on world domination. Sometimes he’s a billionaire industrialist who believes that he’s a pragmatic savior of the world. Sometimes he’s a vaguely comic real-estate magnate who wants to sink California into the ocean. There are three things that all of the various versions of Lex have in common: A massive intellect . . .  An even bigger ego . . .  And a deep hatred of Superman.

Originally Lex was not bald—he was depicted with red hair—but an art error led to his losing his locks and gaining the iconic look he wears today.

Some versions of Lex’s story—notably the 1950’s Superboy comics and the 2000’s TV series Smallville—gave Lex the added wrinkle of his hair loss being connected to a mishap with a young Clark Kent, tying his hatred of Superman to insecurity over his baldness.

In any case, Luthor often justifies his hatred of Superman by claiming that the presence of an alien savior is causing humanity to become complacent and impeding our progress as a species.

Lex often experiments with cloning, having created a few versions of Bizarro, a new body for himself (he was dying of kryptonite poisoning at the time) and the modern version of Superboy.

In 2001, Lex took office as the 43rd president of the United States. He probably would have been a great president if he hadn’t also been doing kryptonite-laced drugs and obsessing over killing Superman.

Lex has been famously played on film by Gene Hackman and Kevin Spacey, among others, and will be played by Jesse Eisenberg in next year’s Batman vs. Superman: Dawn of Justice. In current DC Comics stories, Lex is a member of the Justice League, having saved the earth from their evil counterparts from an alternate universe. What could possibly go wrong?

Lex isn’t the only one–there is a grand tradition of super-scientist supervillains whose ego and spite keep them from doing good. There’s a little bit of Spider-Man’s nemesis Doctor Octopus in Dr. Impossible as well. Like Spider-Man, Doc Ock was created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko for Marvel Comics.

Dr. Otto Octavius was a brilliant but troubled nuclear physicist. After creating a harness with four mechanical tentacles for use in manipulating atomic materials, an accident fused his invention to his body and gave him telepathic control over the arms. Otto became one of Spider-Man’s criminal nemeses and founded the Sinister Six.

Eventually he died, but not before transferring his consciousness into Spider-Man’s body and spending a year living Peter Parker’s life and fighting crime as the Superior Spider-Man. Peter later regained control of his body and Otto is gone. For now.

Another clear influence on doctor impossible is Dr. Doom. Also a Marvel Comics creation, Doom was created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby.

Victor von Doom is the despot ruler of the European nation of Latveria. Doom was a college classmate of Reed Richards and blames Richards for an accident that scarred his face. Doom hates Richards and often finds himself in conflict with the Fantastic Four. Doom wears a metal mask because of his disfigurement, though some believe that his injury resulted in a very small scar, and that Doom’s insecurity and vanity are the real reason he hides. While arguably not as smart as Richards, Doom is still a genius scientist and master of the occult. Despite his hatred for Reed, doom has a deep love for Richards’ daughter Valeria, who was named after Doom’s lost love. Doom is Valeria’s godfather, and Valeria tries to rehabilitate her Uncle Doom. Evil as he may be, doom is always a gentleman.

Doctor Impossible Recommended Reading and Viewing:

About Lex Luthor:
Superman: Man of Steel by John Byrne
Superman: Birthright by Mark Waid and Leniel Francis Yu
Lex Luthor: Man of Steel by Brian Azzarello and Lee Bermejo
All-Star Superman by Grant Morrison and Frank Quitely
Superman: The Movie directed by Richard Donner

About Doctor Octopus:
Spider-Man 2 directed by Sam Raimi

About Doctor Doom:
Fantastic Four: Unthinkable by Mark Waid and Mike Wieringo
Fantastic Four Annual #2 by Lee and Kirby

Other Useful Villain-Centric Works:
Edison Rex by Chris Roberson and Dennis Culver (this is a Lex Luthor pastiche but does a great job of deconstructing the mad scientist supervillain)
Wanted by Mark Millar and JG Jones (another supervillain deconstruction, this one a very dark black comedy and is VERY different from its 2008 film adaptation)
Thunderbolts Classic Vol 1 by Kurt Busiek, Peter David and Mark Bagley (this is about a team of villains in the Marvel Universe masquerading as heroes)

Next Time:

When we meet again, True Believers, I’ll dig through some of the inspirations for the rest of the Champions of Soon I Will Be Invincible. Until then, face front, and Make Mine Lifeline!

SUPERHEROES: WHO THEY ARE AND HOW THEY CAME TO BE – Part 3 – The Dark Age and the Modern Age

Note: This is a guest posting from Jason A. Fleece, dramaturg for our summer MainStage production of Soon I Will Be Invincible.

Last time, we discussed the Silver and Bronze Ages of Superhero Comics. Now we’ll talk about Superhero comics over the last thirty years, leading to what’s happening today.

Like the beginning of the Bronze Age over the course of 1970, the shift to the Dark Age—so named both because of the tone of the material and because of what happened to the industry during this time—is also a gradual one, which took place over the course of the mid-1980s.

One event that ushered in the Dark Age was the elimination of the DC Multiverse. As the Silver Age concept of parallel worlds and multiple versions of characters became too unwieldy for DC’s beleaguered editorial staff to keep straight, they decided to eliminate the concept altogether by publishing a 12-issue epic that destroyed the Multiverse. In a nod to the old Crisis events that would bring the Justice League and the Justice Society together, this event was called Crisis on Infinite Earths, and it was published from 1985 and 1986. By the end of the series, which involved time travel, warping of reality, and the heroic deaths of a few prominent heroes like Supergirl and The Flash (Barry Allen), there existed one DC Universe. In this streamlined world, the Golden Age heroes of the Justice Society had been active in the 40s and then vanished after World War II, the heroes of the Justice League had been inspired by (and sometimes trained by) the Justice Society. Characters DC had acquired from other publishers, like Captain Marvel or The Question or Plastic Man were now contemporaries of the Justice League. History had been rewritten, continuity had been changed.

By this time, the Comics Code Authority had loosened its restrictions, and with the advent of direct market comics sales (comics being sold in specialty stores rather than on newsstands) it had lost much of its power. This meant that comics could get grittier, that elements of horror and true crime that had largely been absent from superhero comics since the 1950s began to creep back in. At Marvel, characters like Wolverine, the Punisher, Elektra—all initially introduced as villains for The Hulk, Spider-Man, and Daredevil respectively—became increasingly popular as heroes throughout the 1980s. These anti-heroes were much more morally gray than their predecessors, willing to kill criminals for the sake of the greater good.

This led to the rise of the two writers who defined superhero comics post-Bronze age: Alan Moore and Frank Miller.

British writer Alan Moore had taken over DC’s Swamp Thing title in the early 1980s, gradually turning it from a fringier superhero comic to a weird horror comic. His first issue featured the hero discovering that his entire existence was a lie and brutally murdering the villain responsible. Moore also deconstructed Superman in his farewell to the Silver Age, Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow with classic Silver Age Superman artist Curt Swan, and then Batman in The Killing Joke with gorgeous, detailed art by Brian Bolland. Moore’s magnum opus Watchmen with Dave Gibbons, considered by many to be the greatest superhero comic of all time, deconstructs the entire idea of a superhero, shining a light on the absurdity of the tropes of the genre. At the same time, Frank Miller brought Batman back to his roots with his dystopian The Dark Knight Returns and his hardboiled crime thriller Batman Year One. Miller had also had some major influence at Marvel, with seminal runs on Daredevil and Wolverine. Moore and Miller spawned many imitators, and the mid-80s through late 90s were full of angry heroes with clenched teeth and gray morality.

Moore’s work on Swamp Thing, as well as fellow Brit Neil Gaiman’s unprecedented top-down reimagining of the Golden Age hero Sandman, led to a major diversification at DC Comics. While both stories ostensibly existed within the DC Universe—The Justice League appeared in issues of Swamp Thing, Martian Manhunter and several more obscure DC figures like Hector and Lyta Hall and Dr. Destiny appeared in Sandman—neither comic was really a superhero story anymore, and the events in those series were primarily ignored in the more mainstream superhero fare. In 1993, these comics, along with Swamp Thing spinoff Hellblazer, two superhero comics (Animal Man and Doom Patrol) written by young Scottish author Grant Morrison, and a few other similarly edgy titles, became DC’s new Vertigo imprint. The Vertigo line was labeled “Suggested For Mature Readers” and did not seek approval from the Comics Code Authority.

In 1991, Marvel expanded their most successful franchise, the X-Men. Alongside the longstanding Uncanny X-Men series, they launched X-Men, by longtime writer Chris Claremont and young superstar artist Jim Lee, and X-Force by Fabian Nicieza and Rob Liefeld. Throughout the 1990s Marvel produced more and more X-Men spinoffs: Cable, Excalibur, Generation X, Deadpool, New Mutants, and on and on. The success of this approach was imitated throughout DC and Marvel’s lines, creating expanding franchises out of their more popular properties like Superman, Batman, Spider-Man, and Punisher.

The success of Crisis on Infinite Earths led to more and more “Event” crossovers from both Marvel and DC, such as Secret Wars and Armageddon 2001 and Age of Apocalypse and Invasion! and Maximum Carnage and so on and so forth. Throughout the 1990s, DC Comics killed Superman, broke Batman’s back, and turned Green Lantern into a villain (they all got better).

During this time, Jack Kirby had had a legal dispute with Marvel Comics, shining a light on the relationship between the publishers and the creators. This led a handful of superstar Marvel Comics artists and writers—Jim Lee, Todd McFarlane, Marc Silvestri, Rob Liefeld, Jim Valentino, Whilce Portacio, Erik Larsen and Chris Claremont—to leave Marvel and form their own publishing company, Image Comics. Image was founded on the principle that the publisher did not own the intellectual properties, the creators did. Image was immediately very successful, with slickly illustrated new superhero titles like Spawn, WildCATS and Youngblood selling as well as or better than their counterparts at the Big Two. The heroes of Image comics were bold and angry, distillations of Frank Miller’s Batman and Chris Claremont’s Wolverine, all gritted teeth and flexed muscles and crosshatching and pouches.

During the 1990s, comic book collecting had become a business, with older comics selling for hundreds and thousands of dollars. Comic book publishers took note and tried to take advantage of the trend, introducing gimmick covers (Holograms! Chromium! Vinyl stickers! Fold-out posters! Polybags!) and playing up the fact that every first issue could someday be a collectors’ item. Between the ever-expanding X-Men line and its imitators, the success of Image Comics, and the increasing frequency of “event” comics, there were suddenly too many possible “collectors’ items” for collectors to handle, and the focus on collectability led to a marked downfall in quality, and suddenly they all became worthless. The collector market crashed, and in 1996 Marvel Comics—the largest and most popular publisher of them all—declared bankruptcy. Marvel and DC scaled back their publishing output and refocused their lines.

The thing that truly spelled the end of the Dark Age was actually something that happened outside the pages of the comics. In 1998, New Line Cinema released a film adaptation of a little known Marvel Comics character Blade. The film, directed by Stephen Norrington and starring Wesley Snipes, was a surprise success. It wasn’t a smash, it didn’t come close to that year’s hits, but this was an obscure character that was part superhero flick and part vampire movie directed by a relative newcomer with only one other film under his belt, coming out a year after the execrable Batman and Robin had effectively killed DC’s biggest film franchise. Hollywood took notice—comic books were a breeding ground for potentially successful and lucrative film franchises.

As a result of the success of Blade, Marvel found itself with some cachet in Hollywood. In 2000, 20th Century Fox released Bryan Singer’s X-Men, earning almost $54 million in its opening weekend and propelling unknown Australian musical theatre actor Hugh Jackman to superstardom. Two years later, Sony Pictures would repeat that success with Sam Raimi’s Spider-Man.

To capitalize on the impending release of X-Men, Marvel introduced the Ultimate imprint, which consisted of retellings of their more popular heroes’ stories outside of the mainstream Marvel Universe, with a more modern sensibility and without ties to Marvel Comics’ convoluted history. They paired veteran artist Mark Bagley with relative newcomer writer Brian Michael Bendis to retell Peter Parker’s beginnings in Ultimate Spider-Man, launching in 2000 as buzz for the Sam Raimi film was building. Ultimate X-Men would launch the same year, and Ultimate Fantastic Four the next. In 2002, Mark Millar and Bryan Hitch created the Ultimate Comics answer to the Avengers, called simply The Ultimates. This ushered in a style referred to in the comics community as “widescreen,” with highly detailed artwork, huge scope, and cinematic bombast. Perhaps in the hopes of enhancing that cinematic feel, Hitch drew the traditionally Caucasian Nick Fury as a photorealistic Samuel L. Jackson, who had given Marvel permission to use his likeness.

As comics reached the new millennium, comics creators who had grown up with the superheroes of the 1960s and 1970s began to use that nostalgia to fuel their work. At DC, writers like Mark Waid and Geoff Johns tried to escape the cynicism and nihilism of the 80s and 90s and return to the optimism and hope that icons like Superman and The Flash and the Justice League had inspired in them in their youth. The TV show Smallville, retelling the early days of Superman, debuted to great success in 2001 and ran for ten seasons. Johns quickly returned the previously evil and dead and undead Hal Jordan to his place as the DC Universe’s prominent Green Lantern. In 2004, Warner Brothers, by now the corporate owners of DC Comics, released Batman Begins, directed by Christopher Nolan. DC started experimenting with form, releasing comics experiments like the newspaper comics page pastiche Wednesday Comics and the weekly epic 52.

In 2008, Marvel released its biggest gamble yet. After the success of the Spider-Man and X-Men films, Marvel decided that its film division, Marvel Studios, would try its hand at production. Previous to 2007, Marvel Studios had only handled licensing of its intellectual properties to other studios—X-Men and Fantastic Four at 20th Century Fox, Spider-Man and Daredevil at Sony, and so on—so producing their own film was an undertaking. They contracted Jon Favreau, whose biggest previous directorial effort was the Will Farrell comedy Elf, to direct a new adaptation of Iron Man, a superhero who had been considered a B-List member of the Marvel pantheon at best. Instead of casting Tom Cruise as Tony Stark, who had been angling for the role for quite some time, he cast the almost uninsurable rehab case Robert Downey Jr. in the role. There was no way that this film could be a success.

And of course it was a revelation. Not since Richard Donner’s Superman in 1979 had the exhilaration of the superhero finally made it onscreen. “You’ll believe a man can fly” was the slogan of the Donner film, but applied even more here. Iron Man grossed over $98 million in its first weekend, the third highest of 2008 (the highest of that year was another comic adaptation, The Dark Knight, which was a revelation of its own kind). Even more ambitious, Marvel Studios immediately began planting the seeds of a shared continuity, similar to their comics line. In a twist of art imitating life (or life imitating art, or maybe art imitating art?), none other than Samuel L. Jackson appeared in a cameo as Nick Fury at the end of the film, hinting at the formation of the Avengers. Downey then reprised his role as Iron Man in that year’s The Incredible Hulk. Marvel Studios immediately started pressing forward with adaptations of other properties—Thor, Captain America, and so on—with the goal of putting them all together in one mega-franchise Avengers film.

Due to the success of Iron Man, the Walt Disney Company, whose intellectual properties were primarily marketed to girls, saw an opportunity to gain the hearts and minds of boys as well and quickly purchased Marvel Entertainment. Much like their treatment of computer animation studio Pixar, Marvel was relatively hands-off, providing financial support but leaving the creative direction of Marvel’s comics and films alone and reaping the financial rewards.

In 2011, DC Comics, still a mess of continuity with its Multiverse (which had returned, since the remnants of it had always remained and were threads ripe for pulling over the previous 25+ years), took a radical step and rebooted its entire line, scrapping previous continuity and starting its titles over with new #1 issues. Even Action Comics and Detective Comics, which had both been published continuously since 1938—Action had recently reached its 900th issue, and Detective was close—were restarted. In keeping with tradition, this change was effected in-continuity due to time travel shenanigans, with Barry Allen once again at the center of it, with the miniseries event Flashpoint. The new initiative was called the New 52 (52 referring specifically to the number of monthly titles they would be releasing and a reference to the very successful weekly 52 miniseries that had run a few years prior).

DC had thus far failed to reach Marvel’s heights on film, but in 2012 they released their own equivalent to Iron Man—an obscure comics property becoming wildly successful in other media—with the debut of the TV show Arrow.

Today, both DC and Marvel—and Image, and Dark Horse and other publishers, but DC and Marvel are still the top dogs—continue to publish. A major emphasis in today’s superhero comics is diversity—Marvel’s notable recent successes have arguably been Ms. Marvel, starring a Pakistani-American Muslim teenager in Jersey named Kamala Khan, and Miles Morales, the Ultimate Spider-Man, starring a biracial African-American and Latino kid following in Peter Parker’s footsteps; DC has been working hard to appeal to teenage girls and young women with their YA-inspired Batgirl and Gotham Academy. Comics are increasingly being sold digitally—both major publishers and many of the smaller ones offer their comics on the ComiXology digital platform, which has been highly successful. Superhero comics reflect 2015 just as well as they reflected 1938.

With all of this change, though, history repeats. Marvel Comics is about to merge its own Multiverse, folding the Ultimate Universe into its main line this summer in a storyline eerily similar to that of DC’s Crisis on Infinite Earths. DC will once again retell the origin of the Justice League, this time on film in next year’s Batman v. Superman: Dawn of Justice. Peter Parker still has trouble getting to work on time because of his exploits as Spider-Man.

Minute Zero may have been, as Michael Chabon claimed, the explosion of Krypton. But just as Lex Luthor continues to find new stores of kryptonite, the shattered stuff of Krypton that have traversed the universe to plague the Man of Steel, seemingly without exhaust, 77 years later we still believe a man can fly, we still know that criminals are a superstitious and cowardly lot, that with great power must come great responsibility. Minute Zero was 77 years ago, and we’re hurtling toward minute 700,000, with no end in sight.

That’s it, Believers. The whole ball of wax. Next time, I’ll discuss some of the specific characters and storylines that served as inspirations for Dr. Impossible, Fatale, and the rest of the Champions of Soon I Will Be Invincible.

Until then, Make Mine Lifeline!